How To Write A Good Literary Essay
What is a Proposal Essay?
A proposal essay is exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an idea and provides evidence intended to convince the reader why that idea is a good or bad one.
Although proposals are generally a significant part of business and economic transactions, they are not limited to those two areas. Proposals may be written for any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and other professional areas.
This article will go over how to write an effective proposal essay and provide a sample one that was actually submitted and implemented.
Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies
Much of the work is done before you type a single sentence. Before sitting down to write your proposal you’ll want to spend some time on each of the following.
- Get to Know Your Audience. Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to convince a reader that your idea is worth pursuing - or that another idea is not worth pursuing. To that end, you have to know who you’ll be writing for. Are they business people? Academics? Government officials? If your audience is primarily business people you’ll want to justify your proposal by pointing to possible financial benefits. If they’re government officials, you may want to emphasize how popular a certain proposal is.
- Do Your Research. Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to persuading others of your proposal. Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research.
- Pre-Write. Before starting the actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas. Once you have a bunch of good ideas, spend some time thinking about how you’d like to organize them.
- Revise, Revise, Revise. Never turn in a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you feedback. Then take some time to incorporate that feedback into a second draft.
Main Parts of a Proposal Essay
The main parts of a proposal essay are summarized here. It is important to keep in mind that depending on your proposal parts may need to be added or taken out. The parts below (with the exception of the introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to suit individual proposals.
- Plan of action
- Desired outcomes
- Resources needed
The introduction serves to inform your reader of the history of the proposal (if applicable) or to introduce a subject to an informed/uninformed audience.
This is the most important part of your paper in some respects. You need to both introduce the topic and show the audience why they should care about this topic. It’s often helpful to begin with an interesting fact, statistic, or anecdote to grab the reader’s attention.
Typically, people only make proposal to solve a problem. As such, you’ll want to highlight a particular problem that you think your proposal would solve. Know your audience so that you can emphasize the benefits your proposal would bring.
This is a statement of purpose. This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. It is okay for this section to be only a few sentences long if the proposal is short. Do not include details about how you will carry out the proposal in this section.
3. Plan of Action
How will you go about achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is where you go into detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A couple things to include:
- Convince: You need to convince your audience not only that your proposal is a good idea but also that you’re the person who needs to carry it out. Highlighting your qualifications about why you’re suited for the task is helpful if you're the one to carry out the proposal.
- Detail: In discussing the implementation, you’ll want to give enough detail to show your audience that you’ve thought about how the process will work. That said, you don’t want to bore them with overly-technical or boring details.
- Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is both good practice and communicates to your audience that you’ve thought carefully about your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks.
4. Will it work?
Focus this area on why the proposal will work. Quite simply, is it a viable proposal? You can draw on similar past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this "past experience" option, focus on what you think your audience wants to hear. For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity. Think logically here.
*Tip: Do not structure this section the same way as your "Benefits of..." section.
5. Desired outcomes
Simple. State what the goals of your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the sections where you mentioned the benefits, but it serves to really "drill" home the point.*
6. Necessary Resources
Another simple part. What is needed to complete your proposal? Include tangible (paper, money, computers, etc.)and intangible items such as time.
7. Preparations Made
Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are to get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class).
Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the "history" of a certain proposal. However if you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the part where you can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of action, all the "why's" of the paper and so on.
9. Works Cited/Consulted
As in any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. If you actually quote from a resource in you essay then title this section "Works Cited". If you do not cite anything word for word, use "Works Consulted".
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- The Online Writing Lab (OWL)
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Sample Proposal Paper
In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an avid painter of nature and still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and glued it to his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning, and thus, by adding different items to aid his painting, he began the art of collage making. (Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Canning). A collage is simply a group of objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. For example, David Modler created a collage called “Big Bug” to represent the irony that is the importance of insects to our natural world in comparison to their size. The bug in the image is the smallest feature of the collage yet it is to be viewed as the most important aspect (Modler, David). All these parts of a collage collaborate together to create a unifying theme or message and can be used as a helpful tool in education.
Statement of Purpose
I propose that each student make an artistic collage to be presented to the class that will symbolize the context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the readings this semester. Students who make a collage will be able to drop the lowest quiz grade.
Plan of Action
The students will have one week from the announcement of the project to complete the collage and prepare a presentation for it. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in the future, and no two students may choose the same work. Conflict with students wanting to present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. The students will be given a rubric with the exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is.
I will make the rubric myself and submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached.
Benefits of Collage Proposal
- Making a collage would allow the students to think and inspect the readings and ideas visually (Rodrigo, “Collage”), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any misconceptions and confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in class verbally.
- A collage provides the opportunity for revision of a certain work and would certainly help to clear up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual and more creative method.
- If a student received a bad grade on a quiz because they did not understand the reading, the collage would give the student an opportunity to go back to the reading and understand it, or to read ahead and grasp concepts that might be useful to present to the class before the class does the reading. A collage would allow the student to become familiar with the work in a visual way and give them an opportunity to understand the main themes, topics, and ideas of a work, even one we might not have read yet.
Viability of Collage Proposal
Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and review a subject and at the same time would resemble preparation for a presentation, the time and effort required to go back and re-read a work as well as prepare the collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the lowest quiz grade.
Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the collage will allow students to get the visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the ideas better.
Past visuals that we have used in class to describe scenes from our readings such as The Tempest and The Odyssey have greatly helped me to understand some of the ideas of the stories. For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the “fuzzy” drawings on the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and understood that he could in fact be a gentle creature that was just angered by Ulysses trespassing and blinding him. I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the more innocent visuals on the board.
Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the idea of a collage replacing the lowest quiz grade and the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute for a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional. Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of discussion, the collage will also be optional based on similar student effort parameters. The students who do not want to do a collage can choose “door number 2” and take a quiz that would be created by the teachers and/or myself. This quiz can be used to make the total number of assignments for each student in the class even, and may or may not be graded based on the professor's discretion.
The first goal of my collage proposal is to give students a chance to be creative and step outside the boundaries of classroom discussion. They can use their imaginations to find a way to creatively put together a collage that will help the class as well as themselves to better understand the course reading.
A second goal of my proposal is that the time and effort put into making the collage and presenting it in front of the class will equal the worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade. Because this collage requires the creator to examine the context, audience, setting, structure of any one of the readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics.
The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is necessary to fully complete the project. One week to create a collage should give each student—no matter what reading they choose to do—ample time to create a presentable and educational collage for the class.
In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding. A simple poster or a series of photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully demanding as this project gets.
In addition, a few hours of class time will need to be allocated in order to present the collages. If each student takes at least five minutes to present the total time needed for the presentations will be 1 hour and 15 minutes. The presentation day(s) and time(s) can be decided by the class as a whole.
The rest of the resources needed are already available:
- The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them
- Craft supplies are readily available
Skills for Successful Completion
- As a good planner and organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the students a good idea of what they should be doing for the collage. The rubric can be made available upon your request.
- In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out of the collage project.
- I can talk to the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for everybody.
- I would volunteer myself to hold an early presentation session a few days before the due date so the others can get an idea of what their collage could look like and why they can benefit from the project.
- I will make myself available to the class if they have any questions about the proposed project.
A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have been confused about. The project is a fun and creative way to get students to think about a reading more in depth as well as review for future exams. As a result of the effort and time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester.
Modler, David. Big Bug. Photograph.Kronos Art Gallery. Web. 12 Oct. 2011
"Pablo Picasso - Still Life with Chair Caning (1912)." Lenin Imports. Web. 12 Oct. 2011.
Rodrigo. "Collages." Web 2.0 Toolkit. 11 Mar. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2011.
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